Large variations in seasonal temperature and rainfall threaten crop production, food prices, and food security at local to global scales. This project focuses on the impacts of climate variability on Europe’s agricultural regions, with an emphasis on wheat in France. Although France has a relatively small agricultural area, it has among the highest wheat yields in the world. Climateinduced shocks to crop production thus influence global prices for wheat and other commodities linked to wheat through markets.
The goal of the Stanford Solar Observatories Group is to study the origin of solar variability, characterize and understand the Sun's interior and the various components of magnetic activity. To achieve this goal, data analysis is performed from space missions. For a better understanding of the Sun and predictive capabilities for solar activity and space weather, these observations have to be accompanied by realistic numerical simulations of the subsurface flows and magnetic structures of the Sun.
In developed countries about 80% of the total population suffers from acute and 5–10% from permanent lower back pain (LBP). An early diagnosis is crucial to reduce patient suffering and lower the economic burden on the society. In a representative study for the western world, the cost of LBP in Switzerland was estimated at 2.6 billion Euros in 2005. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about geometrical abnormalities resulting in LBP. This is in part due to the subtle distinction between healthy geometrical variability and pathological abnormal deformities of the spine.
Symbiosis is a close interaction between different species. The bacteria Wolbachia is the most common endosymbiont (a symbiont living within host cells) described to date. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induces a form of sterility in crosses between males and females infected with distinct Wolbachia types. This feature makes Wolbachia infection a promising non-chemical tool to reduce human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the molecular basis of the Wolbachia-induced sterility is still unknown.
The need for chiral compounds has escalated tremendously in recent years as many biological activities, flavors or fragrances are associated with their absolute molecular configuration. In chemistry, chirality (derived from the Greek, "kheir" "hand") refers to molecules that cannot be superimposed on their own mirror images. Historically, chiral compounds were generated by chemical transformation of a chiral precursor obtained from nature's chiral pool.
With the widespread use of satellite imaging, a wealth of information is available to help in the understanding and modeling of earth system processes. In particular, these data play a key role in the analysis of climate variability. However, satellitebased retrievals present spatial discontinuities due to incomplete coverage of the domain resulting from satellite orbital characteristics, or through occlusion by cloud cover and other atmospheric effects. The straightforward use of Geostatistical prediction methods is made impossible by the wealth of the datasets at stake.
The sensing, monitoring and control of environmental parameters are critical to sustainable development and managing our increasingly interconnected daily lives. Our project unites complementary competencies and laboratories in engineering and materials chemistry. Prof. Beth PRUITT’s Stanford Microsystems Laboratory specializes in design, microfabrication and characterization of microscalesensors, e.g., multiple sensing functions on single devices with small footprint, low power, low crosstalk and high signal integration in a simple process.
Despite the well-proven benefits of proton therapy for tumor treatment there are less than 50 particle therapy facilities in the world. They provide energetic proton beams of 70-250 MeV for treatment of 100-200 patients on a regular basis. These small numbers make it paramount to overcome the greatest obstacle to the universal use of protons in cancer treatment, i.e. the size and cost of the accelerator. The project will bring together Prof. Fuchs, Dr.
Over the past decade there has been a rapid growth in the use of X-ray imaging techniques to study cultural heritage and related fields including art, archaeology and paleontology. Yet with the field still in its infancy there is a lack of communication and multidisciplinary in-depth interaction of the X-ray science and cultural heritage communities. With literally tens of thousands of heritage artefacts yet to be identified and studied the potential for the use of nondestructive X-ray imaging techniques, coupled to adapted data processing approaches, is tremendous.