Cancer develops when evolutionary forces act on mutated cells. When mutations and natural selection repeat over time, cancerous cell populations grow and spread. The resulting cancer cell population displays extensive genetic and functional heterogeneity within and across tumors. This diversity presents challenges to our understanding of tumor biology and ability to treat cancer, especially because the evolutionary dynamics and variables underlying the heterogeneity are often poorly understood.
Collaborative Research Projects
Recent biological and biomedical research, especially work on the microbiome, has revived the idea that living things are not “individuals”, but rather collectives. The aim of this interdisciplinary project is to offer a philosophical and scientific examination of the conditions under which something can be said to be an “individual” in the living world – and how, in certain circumstances, individuals function as a single collective, while collectives can function as biological individuals.
Tissue regeneration through transplantation of therapeutic cells has the potential to revolutionize modern medicine. Therapeutic cells can migrate and differentiate to integrate into their biological environment. Despite great promises from preclinical applications, there are many open questions regarding successful approaches for tissue regeneration and safe applications of therapeutic cells in patients. Labeling therapeutic cells with imaging probes and tracking them with imaging technologies can answer these questions.
In the last century, major breakthroughs in our understanding of ‘identity’ have changed the way that we think about ourselves and the world around us. In the Humanities, fields such as Race and Ethnicity Studies, Gender Studies, History, and Literary Studies have taught us to think of who we are and how we identify ourselves from an intersectional, multicultural, and interspecies viewpoint.
We live in an age of racial, ethnic and religious tension. Our project produces an alternative narrative by asking why people cross religious boundaries, what social and cultural imaginaries make this possible, and what possible futures do these shared spaces suggest?
Plasmas, or ionized gases, are key to many modern applications and are used, for example, in the production of thin films, space propulsion, wound sterilization in medicine, and environmental depollution.
Terrorist events in the name of radical religious doctrines have occurred worldwide. While scholars have carefully investigated engagement in terrorism and violence at the macro scale, there is still little research approaching policy treatments at the micro level despite the fact that many localized inclusion efforts have been developed. This project, a collaboration between two French institutions (the Université d’Artois and the research laboratory LEM-CNRS) and Stanford University, seeks to assess the success of one of these policy treatments.
This project confronts a collection of untapped sources about Renaissance feasting. Focusing on a banquet that took place in Tours, France in 1457, we want to deepen our understanding of Renaissance cooking techniques while investigating how food and feasting intersected with diplomacy, politics, music, dance, art, theater, religion, science, and medicine. Our focus is a fifteenth-century banquet whose source material is unusually extensive and strangely understudied.
Fractured rocks play central role in a wide variety of environmental fields including hydrogeology, geothermal energy, hydrocarbon extraction, and long-term storage of toxic waste. In these and other applications, the presence of fractures has dramatic consequences because they form highly permeable structures that can both help to extract the resource and lead to a faster and further migration of subsurface pollutants.