Symbiosis is a close interaction between different species. The bacteria Wolbachia is the most common endosymbiont (a symbiont living within host cells) described to date. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induces a form of sterility in crosses between males and females infected with distinct Wolbachia types. This feature makes Wolbachia infection a promising non-chemical tool to reduce human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the molecular basis of the Wolbachia-induced sterility is still unknown.
The need for chiral compounds has escalated tremendously in recent years as many biological activities, flavors or fragrances are associated with their absolute molecular configuration. In chemistry, chirality (derived from the Greek, "kheir" "hand") refers to molecules that cannot be superimposed on their own mirror images. Historically, chiral compounds were generated by chemical transformation of a chiral precursor obtained from nature's chiral pool.
With the widespread use of satellite imaging, a wealth of information is available to help in the understanding and modeling of earth system processes. In particular, these data play a key role in the analysis of climate variability. However, satellitebased retrievals present spatial discontinuities due to incomplete coverage of the domain resulting from satellite orbital characteristics, or through occlusion by cloud cover and other atmospheric effects. The straightforward use of Geostatistical prediction methods is made impossible by the wealth of the datasets at stake.
Major human migrations during the last several hundred years have generated new populations of mixed European and African ancestry. The Cape Verde archipelago, located near the western coast of Africa, provides one of the earliest examples of this admixture phenomenon, with a complex and well-documented history of contact among European and African populations beginning in the late 15th century.
The discovery of the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle responsible for endowing all other particles with mass, is one of the major discoveries of the last decade. To unlock the mysteries of the subatomic world, physicists use the world’s most powerful microscopes — particle colliders. But as we push the resolving power of these microscopes —the particle energy— even higher, conventional accelerator techniques are attaining their limits and new concepts are emerging.
Over the past decade there has been a rapid growth in the use of X-ray imaging techniques to study cultural heritage and related fields including art, archaeology and paleontology. Yet with the field still in its infancy there is a lack of communication and multidisciplinary in-depth interaction of the X-ray science and cultural heritage communities. With literally tens of thousands of heritage artefacts yet to be identified and studied the potential for the use of nondestructive X-ray imaging techniques, coupled to adapted data processing approaches, is tremendous.
The World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of mosquito-borne diseases. The spatial complexity of mosquito-borne diseases is currently thwarting control efforts. The challenge is to understand how individuals, their movements and interactions, and the environment, each contribute to determining the local spread of disease. The collective behavior and interaction networks of ant colonies are analogous in some ways to those of human populations.
What makes individuals different? How and when do differences appear during early embryogenesis? Can we identify the sources of these differences, from random processes to precise mechanisms? These classical questions can be re-explored based on the quantitative reconstruction of multi scale dynamics from in vivo and in toto 4D images of developing model organisms (e.g. sea urchin, zebrafish…).
Is the spacetime we are living in the boundary of some higher-dimensional geometric structure? This question, broadly known as the holographic principle, has its quantum counterpart: what physical content is encoded in the asymptotic structures of a spacetime? Two different models are provided by asymptotically de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, and one can ask how a quantum theory can be described in terms of data on the horizon.
Bacteria are extraordinarily important to many aspects of our existence, and are both extremely useful, and extremely dangerous, to humans. Many bacteria, both beneficial and harmful, have two cellular membranes: an inner membrane which contains most vital cellular processes, and an outer membrane that serves as a protective barrier from the outside world.