In developed countries about 80% of the total population suffers from acute and 5–10% from permanent lower back pain (LBP). An early diagnosis is crucial to reduce patient suffering and lower the economic burden on the society. In a representative study for the western world, the cost of LBP in Switzerland was estimated at 2.6 billion Euros in 2005. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about geometrical abnormalities resulting in LBP. This is in part due to the subtle distinction between healthy geometrical variability and pathological abnormal deformities of the spine.
What makes individuals different? How and when do differences appear during early embryogenesis? Can we identify the sources of these differences, from random processes to…
Applications of Microlocal Analysis to Quantum Field Theory on Curved Spacetime
Is the spacetime we are living in the boundary of some higher-dimensional geometric structure? This question, broadly known as the holographic principle, has its quantum…
Mechanical Properties of the Bacteria Outer Membrane
Bacteria are extraordinarily important to many aspects of our existence, and are both extremely useful, and extremely dangerous, to humans. Many bacteria, both beneficial…
Ultrasound-Targeted Drug Delivery for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Despite big advances in disease management, hepatocellular carcinoma (a primary liver cancer) remains the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Indeed, 50% of…
Striatum Dysfunction and Multiple Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
The striatum is a brain structure that is highly involved in motor action and reward-based behaviors, and its dysfunction is associated with many important neurological and…
Reactivating Specific Immune Cells in Brain Cancer Cell Lines
Advancement in the field of cancer treatment is critically tied to the human immune system. For example, a healthy individual’s immune system can eliminate cells that become…
The Role of Non-Native Earthworms in the Terrestrial Bioaccumulation of Mercury at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve
California’s geology, mining history and atmospheric deposition have led to an accumulation of the toxicant mercury in the Bay Area, with troubling implications for human…
Undergraduate Internship in Protein-DNA Interactions Study
I developed a model to understand protein-RNA subject interactions. The lab I worked in had already developed ways to predict protein-protein and protein-DNA…
Undergraduate Internship in Cell and Molecular Biology
I worked in a research lab under France’s National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) in Paris. I was assigned a Ph.D. advisor, who helped…
Undergraduate Internship in Space Reentry Physics
I participated in a plasma physics research internship at Ecole Centrale, an engineering/science university to the southwest of Paris.
My work involved measuring the…
Distributed computations for collaborative medical projects
Personalized medical care in the fields of statistics relies on comparing new patient profiles to existing medical records, in order to predict patient response to…
Symbiosis is a close interaction between different species. The bacteria Wolbachia is the most common endosymbiont (a symbiont living within host cells) described to date. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induces a form of sterility in crosses between males and females infected with distinct Wolbachia types. This feature makes Wolbachia infection a promising non-chemical tool to reduce human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the molecular basis of the Wolbachia-induced sterility is still unknown.
The need for chiral compounds has escalated tremendously in recent years as many biological activities, flavors or fragrances are associated with their absolute molecular configuration. In chemistry, chirality (derived from the Greek, "kheir" "hand") refers to molecules that cannot be superimposed on their own mirror images. Historically, chiral compounds were generated by chemical transformation of a chiral precursor obtained from nature's chiral pool.
With the widespread use of satellite imaging, a wealth of information is available to help in the understanding and modeling of earth system processes. In particular, these data play a key role in the analysis of climate variability. However, satellitebased retrievals present spatial discontinuities due to incomplete coverage of the domain resulting from satellite orbital characteristics, or through occlusion by cloud cover and other atmospheric effects. The straightforward use of Geostatistical prediction methods is made impossible by the wealth of the datasets at stake.
Major human migrations during the last several hundred years have generated new populations of mixed European and African ancestry. The Cape Verde archipelago, located near the western coast of Africa, provides one of the earliest examples of this admixture phenomenon, with a complex and well-documented history of contact among European and African populations beginning in the late 15th century.
The discovery of the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle responsible for endowing all other particles with mass, is one of the major discoveries of the last decade. To unlock the mysteries of the subatomic world, physicists use the world’s most powerful microscopes — particle colliders. But as we push the resolving power of these microscopes —the particle energy— even higher, conventional accelerator techniques are attaining their limits and new concepts are emerging.
Over the past decade there has been a rapid growth in the use of X-ray imaging techniques to study cultural heritage and related fields including art, archaeology and paleontology. Yet with the field still in its infancy there is a lack of communication and multidisciplinary in-depth interaction of the X-ray science and cultural heritage communities. With literally tens of thousands of heritage artefacts yet to be identified and studied the potential for the use of nondestructive X-ray imaging techniques, coupled to adapted data processing approaches, is tremendous.
The World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of mosquito-borne diseases. The spatial complexity of mosquito-borne diseases is currently thwarting control efforts. The challenge is to understand how individuals, their movements and interactions, and the environment, each contribute to determining the local spread of disease. The collective behavior and interaction networks of ant colonies are analogous in some ways to those of human populations.
What makes individuals different? How and when do differences appear during early embryogenesis? Can we identify the sources of these differences, from random processes to precise mechanisms? These classical questions can be re-explored based on the quantitative reconstruction of multi scale dynamics from in vivo and in toto 4D images of developing model organisms (e.g. sea urchin, zebrafish…).
Is the spacetime we are living in the boundary of some higher-dimensional geometric structure? This question, broadly known as the holographic principle, has its quantum counterpart: what physical content is encoded in the asymptotic structures of a spacetime? Two different models are provided by asymptotically de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, and one can ask how a quantum theory can be described in terms of data on the horizon.