Over 30 million patients require a major surgery annually in the US alone and more than half of these patients are elderly (> 60 years old). Memory impairment (Post-Operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)) is a serious complication after surgery that affects up to 41% of elderly patients and is associated with higher mortality and risk of dementia. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of POCD is limited and there is currently no therapy to prevent or treat this cognitive disorder.
Septic shock corresponds to a life-threatening generalized inflammation observed in the most severe infections. It is a serious and common disease in patients admitted in Intensive Care Units. Acute renal failure is a major complication of septic shock, partly explaining the high mortality rates observed in septic patients. The onset of acute renal failure during septic shock is notably explained by unbalanced kidney inflammation, resulting in the presence of a large number of immune cells in renal compartments.
Osteoarthritis (OA), or degenerative joint disease, affects millions of people worldwide. We are currently lacking surrogate markers of the early stages of the articular cartilage degradation occurring in patients with OA. Conventional radiographic measurements provide diagnostic information for patients with an advanced stage of the disease. Conventional MRI is a robust, non-invasive imaging modality for OA but it does not provide functional information related to the cartilage.